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Bloodborne Pathogen Training

This training module is designed to provide a basic understanding of bloodborne pathogens, common modes of their transmission, methods of prevention, emergency procedures, and other pertinent information. This program has been developed in accordance with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Bloodborne Pathogen Standard, 29 CFR 1910.1030. You can obtain a complete copy of the standard in your building office or by clicking on the highlighted text above.

OSHA requires employers to determine which employees may be exposed to blood or other potentially dangerous materials (OPIM). Occupational exposure in this district results from such events as direct care to individuals for injuries and illnesses, medical procedures and injections, or exposure to individuals with illnesses or bleeding injuries. 

Some job classifications are more at risk than others. Nurse, coach, athletic trainer, physical education teacher, secretary, building aide, administrator, special education teacher, and special education aide are examples of positions which may present more risk.

However, the Marysville School District has determined that all job classifications have potential exposure to blood and OPIM and that all District employees will be offered the protections established by the OSHA standard. 

A complete copy of the district's  Exposure Control Plan can be obtained in your building office or by clicking on the highlighted  text below. This plan details the district's policies and procedures regarding Bloodborne pathogens.  Exposure Control Plan

What are Bloodborne Pathogens?  They are microorganisms such as virues or bacteria that are carried in blood and can cause disease in people.  There are many differnet bloodborne diseases including malaria and syphilis, but Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV), and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are three of the most common and dangerous. 

Hepatitis B (HBV)   In the United States, approximately 300,000 people are infected with HBV annually. Of these cases, a small percentage are fatal.  Hepatitis B is a virus that infects the liver. While there are several different types of Hepatitis, Hepatitis B is transmitted primarily through "blood to blood" contact. Hepatitis B initially causes inflammation of the liver, but it can lead to more serious conditions later in life, such as cirrhosis and liver cancer. 

There is no "cure" or specific treatment for HBV, but many people who contract the disease will develop antibodies which help them get over the infection and protect them from getting it again. It is important to note, however, that there are different kinds of hepatitis, so infection with HBV will not stop someone from getting another type. 

The Hepatitis B virus is very durable, and it can survive in dried blood for up to seven days. For this reason, this virus is the primary concern for employees such as custodians, and other employees who may come in contact with blood or potentially infectious materials in a non first-aid or medical care situation. 

Symptoms:  The symptoms of HBV are very much like a mild "flu". Initially there is a sense of fatigue, possible stomach pain, loss of appetite, and even nausea. As the disease continues to develop, jaundice (a distinct yellowing of the skin and eyes), and a darkened urine will often occur. However, people who are infected with HBV will often show no symptoms for some time. After exposure it can take 1-9 months before symptoms become noticeable. Loss of appetite and stomach pain, for example, commonly appear within 1-3 months, but can occur as soon as 2 weeks or as long as 6-9 months after infection.

HBV is one of the few bloodborne diseases for which a vaccine is available. More information on this vaccine will be provided later in this training module. For further information on HBV visit the CDC's Hepatitis B information site at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis/b/fact.htm

Hepatitis C (HCV)  Another viral infection of the liver is Hepatitis C. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common chronic bloodborne infection in the United States. 70% of infected persons experience chronic liver disease, which can lead to death. There is no vaccination to protect against HCV. Following universal precautions is one's only protection.

Symptoms:  The symptoms of HCV are similar to those of HBV. Fatigue, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and nausea and / or vomiting are followed by jaundice. Approximately 60-70% of infected persons infected with HCV will remain asymptomatic for some time. For further information on HCV visit the CDC's Hepatitis C information site at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis/c/fact.htm

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) AIDS, or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, is caused by a virus called the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. Once a person has been infected with HIV, it may be many years before AIDS actually develops. HIV attacks the body's immune system, weakening it so that it cannot fight other deadly diseases. AIDS is a fatal disease, and while treatment for it is improving, there is no known cure.

Estimates on the number of people infected with HIV vary, but some estimates suggest that an average of 35,000 people are infected every year. By the year 2002, it is possible that 2%-9% of the American population will be infected, or 5 to 15 million people.Many people who are infected with HIV may be completely unaware of it.

The HIV virus is very fragile and will not survive very long outside of the human body. It is primarily of concern to employees providing first aid or medical care in situations involving fresh blood or other potentially infectious materials. It is estimated that the chances of contracting HIV in a workplace environment are only 0.4%. However, because it is such a devastating disease, all precautions must be taken to avoid exposure. 

Symptoms:  Symptoms of HIV infection can vary, but often include weakness, fever, sore throat, nausea, headaches, diarrhea, a white coating on the tongue, weight loss, and swollen lymph glands.  For further information on HIV / AIDS, visit the CDC's information site at:  http://www.cdc.gov/hiv

How are Bloodborne Patheogens Transmitted?  Bloodborne Pathogens, such as HBV, HCV, and HIV can be transmitted through contact with infected human blood and other potentially infectious body fluids such as:  seman, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, peritoneal fluid, amniotic fluid, saliva (in dental procedures), and any body fluid that is visibly contaminated with blood. 

It is important to know the ways exposure and transmission are most likely to occur in your particular situation, be it providing first aid to a student in the classroom, or cleaning up blood from a hallway.

HBV and HIV are most commonly transmitted through:   Sexual contact, sharing of hypodermic needles, from mothers to their babies at/before birth, accidental punture from contaminated needles, broken glass, or other sharps, contact between broken or damaged skin and infected body fluids, contact between mucous membranes and infected body fluids.

Accidental punture from contaminated needles and other sharps can result in transmission of bloodborne pathogens.

In most work or laboratory situations, transmission is most likely to occur because of accidental puncture from contaminated needles, broken glass, or other sharps; contact between broken or damaged skin and infected body fluids; or contact between mucous membranes and infected body fluids. For example, if someone infected with HBV cut their finger on a piece of glass, and then you cut yourself on the now infected piece of glass, it is possible that you could contract the disease. Anytime there is blood-to-blood contact with infected blood or body fluids, there is a slight potential for transmission.

Unbroken skin forms an impervious barrier against bloodborne pathogens. However, infected blood can enter your system through: Open sores, cuts, abrasions, acne, any sort of damaged or broken skin such as sunburn or blisters.

Bloodborne pathogens may also be transmitted through the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth.  For example, a splash of contaminated blood to your eye, nose, or mouth could result in transmission.

PPE, Work Practices, & Engineering Control  It is extremely important to use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and work practice controls to protect yourself from bloodborne pathogens.

"Universal Precautions" is the name used to describe a prevention strategy in which all blood and other potentially infectious materials are treated as if they are, in fact, infectious, regardless of the perceived status of the source individual. In other words, whether or not you think the blood/body fluid is infected with bloodborne pathogens, you treat it as if it is.  

This approach is used in all situations where exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials is possible. This also means that certain engineering and work practice controls should always be utilized in situations where exposure may occur.

Personal Protective Equipment  The first thing to do in any situation where you may be exposed to bloodborne pathogens is to ensure you are wearing the appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). For example, you may have noticed that emergency medical personnel, doctors, nurses, dentists, dental assistants, and other health care professionals always wear protective gloves. This is a simple precaution they take in order to prevent blood or potentially infectious body fluids from coming in contact with their skin.

To protect yourself, it is essential to have a barrier between you and the potentially infectious material:  Always wear appropriate Personal Protective Equipmant (PPE) in exposure situations.  Remove PPE that is torn or punctured, or has lost its ability to function as a barrier to blookborne pathogens.   Protective equipment is provided to you at no charge.  For the protection of yourslef, the public, and other members of the staff, protective equipment, such as gloves, are not to be worn outside of the work area.

Gloves - One of the most common types of personal protective equipment are gloves.  Gloves should be worn whenever touching blood or body fluids, or when handling items or surfaces soiled with blood or body fluids. If you know you have cuts or sores on your hands, you should cover these with a bandage or similar protection as an additional precaution before donning your gloves. Disposable gloves need to be inspected for tears or punctures before putting them on, and are not to be re-used. When taking contaminated gloves off, do so carefully. Make sure you don't touch the outside of the gloves with any bare skin.

Gloves are located in all first aid kits and fanny packs. In addition, gloves can be found at the following locations in the Marysville Schools:

Marysville High School                  Clinic, Locker Rooms

Bunsold Middle School                  Main Office, Clinic 

Creekview Intermediate School

Main Office, Clinic

Edgewood Elementary

Main Office

Mill Valley Elementary

Main Office/Clinic

Navin Elementary

Main Office/Clinic, MH Classroom

Raymond Elementary

Main Office

Board Office

Workroom

TEC

Bus Driver's lounge & on all busses

Hand Washing  One of the most important (and easiest) practices used to prevent the transmission of bloodborne pathogens is hand washing.


Hands or other exposed skin should be thoroughly washed as soon as possible following an exposure incident. 


Hands should also be washed immediately (or as soon as feasible) after removal of gloves or other personal protective equipment. 



Use soap and water


Lather 10 - 15 seconds


Wash all surfaces


Rinse with warm water


Towel dry

Cleaning Up a Spill:  The custodians in each buildings are supplied with the necessary equipment to properly clean an area that has been contaminated with blood or other potentially infectious materials.


When decontaminating an area, one should: 

- Put on personal protective equipment

- Remove any sharp objects carefully with a broom and dust pan.

- Circle and saturate spill with disinfectant.

- Clean with and dispose of paper towel.

- Re-apply disinfectant to area. 

- Re-wipe with paper towel.

Disposal of Infectious Waste  Disposal of waste is an important part of an over-all safety strategy. 


Use sharps containers for: all needles and syringes, and broken or unbroken glass that has been in contact with infectious agents


ALL disposable glovesare to be discarded into the nearest waste receptacle as soon as possible upon removal of the gloves.


Needles must not be recapped, bent, removed from disposable syringes, or otherwise manipulated by hand.


Infectious waste disposal procedures are described in theDistrict's Exposure Control Plan.

Signs / Labels


All areas which contain biohazardous agents must be labeled with a biohazard warning label. It must be red or orange in color with a biohazard symbol and lettering in black as illustrated below

By using Universal Precautions and following these simple engineering and work practice controls, you can help protect yourself and prevent transmission of bloodborne pathogens. 

Emergency Procedures


What should I do in an emergency?In an emergency situation involving blood or potentially infectious materials, you should alwaysuse Universal Precautions and try to minimize your exposure by using the appropriate personal protective equipment.

For needle sticks, splashes and other potential exposures . . .


Wash area with water for at least 15 minutes.


Report exposure to your supervisor.


Report to Memorial Hospital of Union County's Emergency Department ASAP after notification of supervisors. They will ensure the proper procedures and paperwork are initiated.


In consultation with a health care provider, you will be offered prophylaxis and post-exposure evaluation and follow-up, as outlined in the District's Exposure Control Plan.

 

THANK YOU You have now completed the Marysville Schools' Bloodborne Pathogens training module. 


Bloodborne Pathogens Standard Training Documentation

1. I have read and understand all of the material presented in the Bloodborne Pathogens training module.

2. I understand that the school health consultants are available to answer any questions that I may have regarding Bloodborne Pathogens in the school setting. 

3. I understand the need for using universal precautions when dealing with blood and body fluids, and know where gloves and other protective equipment are located in the buildings.

4. I have been given access to the District's Exposure Control Plan (ECP).

5. I understand that I will need post-exposure evaluation if I have an exposure incident with blood or OPIM, even if I have received the HBV. I will report this incident to the building principal, assistant superintendent, and school health consultant immediately. 

Vaccinations


What Vaccinations are available?Hepatitis B is one of the few bloodborne diseases for which there is a vaccine. All employees of the Marysville Schools (except substitutes) are offered the Hepatitis B vaccine at no cost to the employee. 

Substitute employees, please see your physician for information on obtaining the Hepatitis B vaccine.

As stated in the Emergency Procedures section, if you are exposed to blood or potentially infectious materials on the job, you may request a Hepatitis B vaccination at that time. If the vaccine is administered immediately after exposure it is extremely effective at preventing the disease. 

The Hepatitis B vaccination is given in a series of three shots. The second shot is given one month after the first, and the third shot follows five months after the second. This series gradually builds up the body's immunity to the Hepatitis B virus.

The vaccine itself is made from yeast cultures; there is no danger of contracting the disease from getting the shots. And, once vaccinated, a person does not need to receive the series again. A blood test to confirm immunity is also provided for employees in certain job categories and there are booster shots available. In some instances these may be recommended (for example, if there is an outbreak of Hepatitis B at a particular location or if immunity is not obtained after the series is completed). 

If you have any questions or need to discuss anything regarding the Hepatitis B vaccine, please contact the Board Office at (937)578-6100.

This concludes the Marysville Schools Bloodborne Pathogens Training. 

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